31 August 2014

10 Most Commonly Misused Words

Mistakes – we all have made them.  We are, after all, human.  Sometimes in a rush to beat a deadline, there would not be enough time for a grammar check.  Or maybe our brain-to-hand coordination is not at its finest – we thought of something brilliant to say but inexplicably, when reviewing our finished article or essay, it was not written in the way that we had in mind.

In everyday conversation, we can slip up and get away with it.  A fellow worker may be thinking, "Did he just say 'irregardless' 14 times in the last 25 minutes?", but the words flow on, and most of our lapses are carried away and forgotten.  But this is not so in written communications.  When we commit a grammatical abomination in emails, reports, memos, and other professional documents, there is really no going back.  There are no mulligans in written correspondences.  There will be an official record of our carelessness or our stumped knowledge of the language.

These days, we often overlook grammatical mistakes because we also make them ourselves.  And if we are in a hurry, as we often are, typos, no-caps sentences, and inconsistencies are tolerated, even expected.  But sometimes we need to avoid these mistakes so that there is no confusion about what we are saying, and we can look like the professionals that we are, and appear at least moderately intelligent.  Below are the 10 most commonly misused words taken from John Gingerich compilation of the 20 Common Grammar Mistakes That (Almost) Everyone Makes from Lit Reactor:

Who and Whom

"Who" is a subjective — or nominative — pronoun, along with "he," "she," "it," "we," and "they." It's used when the pronoun acts as the subject of a clause.  "Whom" is an objective pronoun, along with "him," "her," "it", "us," and "them."  It's used when the pronoun acts as the object of a clause.  Using "who" or "whom" depends on whether you're referring to the subject or object of a sentence.  When in doubt, substitute "who" with the subjective pronouns "he" or "she," e.g., Who loves you? cf., He loves me. Similarly, you can also substitute "whom" with the objective pronouns "him" or "her." e.g., I consulted an attorney whom I met in New York. cf., I consulted him.

Which and That

"That" is a restrictive pronoun. It's vital to the noun to which it's referring.  e.g., I don’t trust fruits and vegetables that aren't organic. Here, I'm referring to all non-organic fruits or vegetables. In other words, I only trust fruits and vegetables that are organic. "Which" introduces a relative clause. It allows qualifiers that may not be essential. e.g., I recommend you eat only organic fruits and vegetables, which are available in area grocery stores. In this case, you don’t have to go to a specific grocery store to obtain organic fruits and vegetables. "Which" qualifies, "that" restricts. "Which" is more ambiguous however, and by virtue of its meaning is flexible enough to be used in many restrictive clauses. e.g., The house, which is burning, is mine. e.g., The house that is burning is mine.

Lay and Lie

"Lay" is a transitive verb. It requires a direct subject and one or more objects. Its present tense is "lay" (e.g., I lay the pencil on the table) and its past tense is "laid" (e.g., Yesterday I laid the pencil on the table). "Lie" is an intransitive verb. It needs no object. Its present tense is "lie" (e.g., The Andes mountains lie between Chile and Argentina) and its past tense is "lay" (e.g., The man lay waiting for an ambulance). The most common mistake occurs when the writer uses the past tense of the transitive "lay" (e.g., I laid on the bed) when he/she actually means the intransitive past tense of "lie" (e.g., I lay on the bed).

Continual and Continuous

"Continual" means something that's always occurring, with obvious lapses in time. "Continuous" means something continues without any stops or gaps in between. e.g., The continual music next door made it the worst night of studying ever. e.g., Her continuous talking prevented him from concentrating.

May and Might

"May" implies a possibility. "Might" implies far more uncertainty. "You may get drunk if you have two shots in ten minutes" implies a real possibility of drunkenness. "You might get a ticket if you operate a tug boat while drunk" implies a possibility that is far more remote. Someone who says "I may have more wine" could mean he/she doesn't want more wine right now, or that he/she "might" not want any at all. Given the speaker's indecision on the matter, "might" would be correct.

Whether and If

"Whether" expresses a condition where there are two or more alternatives. "If" expresses a condition where there are no alternatives. e.g., I don't know whether I’ll get drunk tonight. e.g., I can get drunk tonight if I have money for booze.

Farther and Further

The word "farther" implies a measurable distance. "Further" should be reserved for abstract lengths you can't always measure. e.g., I threw the ball ten feet farther than Bill. e.g., The financial crisis caused further implications.

Fewer and Less

"Less" is reserved for hypothetical quantities. "Few" and "fewer" are for things you can quantify. e.g., The firm has fewer than ten employees. e.g., The firm is less successful now that we have only ten employees.

"Since" refers to time. "Because" refers to causation. e.g., Since I quit drinking I’ve married and had two children. e.g., Because I quit drinking I no longer wake up in my own vomit.

Affect and Effect

"Affect" is almost always a verb (e.g., Facebook affects people's attention spans), and "effect" is almost always a noun (e.g., Facebook's effects can also be positive). "Affect" means to influence or produce an impression — to cause hence, an effect. "Effect" is the thing produced by the affecting agent; it describes the result or outcome. There are some exceptions. "Effect" may be used as a transitive verb, which means to bring about or make happen. e.g., My new computer effected a much-needed transition from magazines to Web porn. There are similarly rare examples where "affect" can be a noun. e.g., His lack of affect made him seem like a shallow person.

Bring and Take

In order to employ proper usage of "bring" or "take," the writer must know whether the object is being moved toward or away from the subject. If it is toward, use "bring." If it is away, use "take." Your spouse may tell you to "take your clothes to the cleaners." The owner of the dry cleaners would say "bring your clothes to the cleaners."
Source:  http://www.globalpinoy.com/

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